by Robert Kardien Vanderhoek
"I have deep faith that the principle of the universe will be beautiful and simple".
- Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
In the early 1970's, Quark Theory was relatively well established but, no quarks or direct evidence of any had been found. A film titled "The Hunting of the Quark", ["Horizon"- Educational ScientificSeries, written & produced by David Paterson, (1974) Time-Life] was aired on Public Television on November 17, 1974.
( NOVA). [Hunting of the Quark (The)]
"The Hunting of the Quark" A portion of this film described an exclusive reaction (electron-proton scattering experiment) that was done at Stanford University and what was found when computer analysis was done with the data. A program was run to search for any charge morphology or configuration on the proton. In the film, an animation was shown of a rapidly alternating charge pattern that was found, as the only symmetrical configuration to fit the scattering data.
The animation represented the proton as a sphere with two counter spinning rings of positive charge, each rotating near the relative poles, in one state. In the alternate state, four point charges were shown equally displaced around the equator of the proton.
The Changing Shape of Protons
These four point charges then began to simultaneously elongate into linear arc charges stretching out toward, and almost reaching the poles of the sphere. The film's narrator stated that, "theorists could explain what might cause the ring charges to occur, but were unable to account for the four point, elongating into line-arc charges". He also pointed out that this data, although intriguing did conflict with some of the basic assumptions of "Quark Theory" (Fig.#1). Recent experimentation indicates that the proton has an electro-dynamic nature and various morphologies. "Surprise to physicists" protons aren't always shaped like a basketball". University of Washington April 5 2003.
These latest findings seem to confirm the existence of the dynamic charge patterns described in this hypothesis. ((Comparison)) Such charge patterns, (inner) would result in the various proton morphologies, (outer) being observed, deflected off them. Rather than, quarks orbiting at nearly the speed of light as suggested by Miller, they are electro-dynamic charge fields that do move at the speed of light.
Internal Structure of the Proton
To understand what is occurring within the proton, that causes the alternating charge patterns, visualize the proton as a hollow, thin shelled sphere or bubble of mass. Inside the sphere there are four identical, positively charged particles. These four particles are synchronously oscillating from near the proton's center, almost to the containing shell, and back again. Their oscillation paths are equally spaced at ninety-degree intervals in the plane of the proton's equator. For ease of illustration and to avoid confusion these particles will be referred to as Quadrons rather than quarks. Synchronicity at the quantum level may seem counter-intuitive to the "Uncertainty Principle", but is not precluded by it.
It is well documented that when a charged particle, the electron for example, takes on a relative linear motion it generates a spinning electromagnetic field (positive particles field spins rotate opposite to negative particle spins). This field expands at the velocity of light, at right angles to the particle's linear direction, in a clockwise spin, if facing the oncoming electron particle. Alternatively see: http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=hjDrqsy6kH0
Applying this field concept, and starting at the farthest points from the proton center, the four quadrons are pushed inward. They are repelled by their own charge fields, which are mirrored in the containing energy-mass sphere. As the particles take on a relative linear motion they each radiate a spinning, obtuse, conical energy field at right angles to their respective motion. As these spinning energy fields expand outward, at the velocity of light, they encounter the proton shell and are deflected around and along its inner physical surface. As the particles progress inward, these four energy fields generated at an angle of 90 degrees to each other, expand and curve around the inner surface of the shell to meet each other adjacently at an angle of 180 degrees. It is known that when charge fields, of the same spin direction, encounter each other at an angle of 180 degrees they join together. (Electromagnetic field coupling) This charge field coupling is what creates the two counter spinning charge rings around the proton poles. The double charge rings, that are formed, keep the four quadrons oscillating within a plane, preventing close packing. (Fig.#2) & (Fig.#3).
The Role of Quadron's Linear Velocity
As the quadrons move inward toward the center of the proton their linear velocity begins to slow, due to the repulsive nature of their similar charges. This action causes the concentrated double ring charges, at the proton poles, to collapse back upon the four particles from which they were generated, in an effort to maintain the particle velocities (Self induction). However, the four quadron charge fields have been combined, divided in half and rotated 90 degrees from the direction in which they were originally radiated. They are now in the form of two diametrical spinning rings of similar charge, focused upon a point at the center of the proton.
The two charge rings collapse upon this point at the proton’s center, in a conical fashion due to economy of motion. It resembles an hourglass of charge caving in on itself at its center (Consider these formulas, the area of a circle, a = pr ², volumes: a cone, V = 1/3pr² h., a sphere, V = 4/3 pr³). The ring charges collapse across their radii at the speed of light, thus, r = c. The area that the charge is compacted into mass would be reduced at V = 2(1/3pc² h), (r² = c²), energy to mass conversion occurs. Condensations of mass are created and layered upon each other as the two rings collapse inward to form a new fifth particle at the center of the proton. Both ring charges being focused on the same central point predispose the newly created particle to be spherical. The hourglass shaped charge has collapsed inward to form a new particle. This particle will be called the "Universal Particle" or "U" particle.
The U Particle
Within the proton we observe four positively charged particles gathered around a newly created fifth U particle, at the proton center. To enable this system, to keep oscillating, the charge on the new U particle would need to be positive. The five positive particles are in closer proximity to each other than they could be, under any other circumstances, at the same energy levels.
The quadron particles are repelled by the like charge of the newly created fifth positive particle and each other's similar charge. (Like or same type charges repel each other, unlike charges attract.) The four quadrons would be sprung outward away from the proton center, toward the containing spherical shell. As the four quadrons travel outward their rotating charge fields expand and adjacently encounter each other at an angle of 90 degrees. Field coupling cannot occur as it did along the shell wall on the inward journey. The charge fields deflect each other adjacenty, outward toward the proton shell at an angle of 45 degrees relative to the oscillation paths of the quadron particles. A map analogy would have the quadron oscillation paths at the North, south, east and west locations while the deflected charge fields would be at the Northeast, southeast, northwest and southwest positions. The charge fields, which travel at the velocity of light, lead the quadron particles outward toward the proton shell. When the deflected fields first encounter the proton shell they appear as four point charges equally displaced around the equator. These point charges expand into the linear arc charges as the four quadrons move closer to the proton shell and more of their deflected charge fields encounter it.
Returning to the center of the proton we observe that the, newly created, fifth positive particle (U particle) is emitting field relative to the oscillating particles. It is being stripped of field, as though the U particle is traveling in four directions at once. It would be anisotropically accelerated at the four points where the receding quadron fields met and deflected outward at the velocity of light and four points where it faced the quadron particles. (quadra - octapoles)
Considering energy-mass as a spectrum, with mass at one end, energy at the other, and charged particles at various places in between. A statement can be made: Energy-mass which is changing in a direction toward mass, will have a positive charge; Energy-mass that is changing in a direction toward energy, will have a negative charge.
The U particle is being relatively accelerated by the speed of light squared. Changing in a direction toward energy, it takes on a negative charge and explodes outward as it is ripped apart in the process of mass being converted back to energy. (The point our Universe is at, given that size and time are infinitely relative).
The four outbound quadron particles eventually come in
close enough proximity to the proton shell to be repulsed by the
reflection of their own charges. The central U particle has been
completely converted to energy. The four quadrons begin to slow. The
uncombined, deflected arcs of charge field, stored along the proton
shell, collapse inward toward the respective particles from which they
were radiated, approaching them from each side. (Self induction).
An anomaly at the macro-level is that enough energy to support universal expansion, for about 15 billion years, was present at the time of the big bang. The universe should have collapsed in upon itself, during the initial stage of expansion, from the cumulative force of its own gravity.
To account for this phenomenon, "Inflation Theory", postulates that early expansion of the universe, immediately after its birth, was sharply accelerated to a point which prevented collapse. The cause of this rapid expansion is unexplained. The accelerated expansion then slowed down as the universe cooled and gravity came into existence. If our universe initially had no gravity and was not exploding but, being ripped and spun apart as the U particle in this proton model is, it's a viable cosmological scenario that encompasses inflation, and explains what dark energy is.
Observing the universe at point zero, just as the big bang occurs, it is seen that there is no particulate matter. The four basic forces, nuclear, electro-magnetic, weak, and gravitation do not exist. The universe expands at an enormously accelerated rate (Inflation Theory) because of dark energy's pull. It is being pulled apart by the expanding energy fields of four outbound quadron (anti-matter) universes.
The Limits of Universal Expansion
As our universe expands and cools enough, matter begins to form, photons and other heavier leptons with charge characteristics such as electrons and positrons come into being. Next the larger and more massive hadron class including the nucleons (protons and neutrons) come into existence along with gravity which slows the rapid expansion of our universe. The unbound inflation phase of the universe is at an end. This proton scenario would allow a rapid initial expansion of the cosmos until gravity came into existence and slowed everything down.
If the universe we dwell in is analogous to the universal particle described in this theory, there should be some evidence to indicate this. A perpendicular light polarization alignment of the observable galaxies in our universe has been discovered (duel crossing spirals) See "Does the Cosmos Have Direction" – [Scientific News Vol.151, No.17 4/26/97]. More recently a quadrupole orientation has been discovered in the CMB (cosmic microwave background radiation). 2006-08 See "Axis of Evil" [pg. 3 for illustration]. The Quadrants of Creation, I believe, is a more descriptive name.
The expansion of the universe would also be accelerating. A relatively new anti-gravity force, called "dark energy", has been coined to explain this unexpected anomaly. Dark energy is proposed to have the unusual trait of being very weak when the universe was young and dense, but grows stronger as the universe expands and becomes more diffuse.
Four anti-matter universe sized structures, outside and traveling away from our universe, as the quadrons do inside the proton, would account for all observed effects. The universe we exist in is being pulled apart, after exploding.
The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is comprehensible.